Food Processing

In animal husbandry as the main use of concentrated feed barley, oats, rye, wheat and non-food products processing. The potential of these forages feeding monogastric animals are not fully used by the body. The main forage crops – oats and barley – are high in fiber (9-12 and 4-7% respectively). If you bring down the oats and barley, the fiber content is reduced to 2,5-3,5% in barley, to 4-4,5% in oats. In this matter digestibility of forages although increasing, but the problem is completely solved. After the rye with the amount of fiber in whole grain 2,4-2,5% is not high-value forage / 2 /.

Low nutritional value of grain number due to the fact that along with the fiber they contain significant quantities of other non-starch polysaccharides, which include beta-glucans and pentosans. They are found in the cell walls of endosperm of corn and shelling are not eliminated. Full feed reduces forage consumption by almost a third. Mixed feeds or feed mixtures – a mixture prepared from the crushed feed composed of scientifically valid prescription. They have a structure specifically designed for the age and economic groups of animals (calves, dairy cows, fattening cattle), poultry feed is starting, fattening, for laying hens. The composition of feed mixtures include cereals, animals and forages, grass and pine flour, the waste of fish and meat, products of chemical and microbiological industries, protein-vitamin-mineral additives, as well as premixes (dressing mixture of biologically active substances of microbiological and chemical synthesis). This is not an exhaustive list of components that make up a particular feed. Compound Feeds released in the form of powdery mixture krupok, pellets and briquettes.

The most convenient form of registration are pellets. The granules are spherical, cylindrical, cubic, the size of them – from 1 to 25 ml. In the granules are well preserved foods and vitamins, they do not become caked not start sticking, convenient for transportation and mechanized distribution. The world's largest producer of animal feed is the U.S. (about a quarter of world production). About half This amount is feed for poultry, almost one-third – for beef and dairy cattle, 13% – for C and 7% – for other species. As we see in modern conditions the economical food intake, regulation of its consumption in animal becomes more acute. This dictates the need to reorient our farms and processing enterprises to produce high-quality energy and protein feed products, increase production of balanced feed.

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Lipid Metabolism

Lipids, along with proteins and carbohydrates are essential components of diets of farm animals and poultry. Their role in the organism is multifaceted. Great importance is attached to lipids and the nature of their exchange in the definition functional state of the organism, individual cells and subcellular elements, as well as assessing the quality of products derived from poultry. Lipids in animal and plant organisms are found in two forms: structural (plasma) and backup (spare). In the first case, they are an integral component of all structural elements of cells, while the latter represent a special depot for energy reserves. This a certain effect on the chemical composition and physiological role of both forms of lipids. With these features and modern ideas about the nature of the biological significance of lipids in living organisms viewed in terms of their participation in energy metabolism in the construction of biological membranes and to ensure their functions in the biosynthesis of biologically active compounds, in providing protective functions of mechanical and chemical effects of external factors, which ultimately affects all major aspects of life of the organism. In mammals, farm animals soaked from the intestines of food lipids come mainly in the lymphatic system and only then – in the bloodstream.

With blood they are carried throughout the body and quickly absorbed by fat tissue, liver, heart muscle and other tissues. At the same farm birds The lymph system does not play a big role in the transport soaked their intestinal lipids. Synthesized in the intestinal wall chylomicrons enter directly into the portal system and in the liver. During the assimilation tissue triglyceride molecule undergoes rapid hydrolysis. Formed with the fatty acids are used for resynthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids, or oxidized to carbon dioxide. Newly lipids may be partially implemented in the liver, but the main way to use them – is a constant secretion in the form of lipoproteins. Triglycerides are mostly associated with low density lipoprotein and beta-lipoproteins. At the same while phospholipids and cholesterol are associated with the fraction of high density lipoproteins. However, in case of violation of the protein or phospholipid formation of lipoprotein hampered flow of lipids from the liver into the blood. In these cases, the synthesis of fats, as a rule, is continuing, and the result is fatty liver. It was established that the biosynthesis of lipids in poultry is significantly different from mammals in which adipose tissue is the main site of synthesis of fatty acids of low molecular weight precursors.

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